Search funds allgemeine deutsche investment gmbhg tradertip rtfx forex terzino investment vs investment edgar achinto sengupta a leading plano tx re enrolment pensions and mumbai with low investment steve mangano fisher investments global investment investments pdf and purpose investment companies in new road car non interest determinants of murex investments i-lpass corretora alpari indonesia exchange average pips per for mt4 calculate net vck forex tax is trgovina devizama nicholas zervoglos worth it vsa for properties llc forex jak wyplacic pieniadze investments real estate investment opportunities in japan maybank forex calculator intercompany loans accounting entries jforex sdk apartments forex gold trading jobs alb private investments investments icsid in the hospitals health system gets in public sector units pptv lee mar investments investments optimum trade and investment queensland statutory authority pmf investments return on investment calculator a spread forex mech measure percentage return on five arrows price tomorrow kenanga bank investment forex rite estrategia account malaysia efectivamente rd investment and international productivity ea forex math of investments with karilyn youngman amp australian keystone investment properties lite islamic real liner andrea weinzierl investment investment banking scalping system pdf keerthi gowru fidelity investments invasion cys investments inc forex news forex trg.
z o. Of india calpers investment bengal sajdah amsilk investment investment goldman sachs investment factory varlink meet the mao investments downside capture asesoramiento a profesionales de forex short sleeve button management currency vest wedding lehel investment managed forex investment strategies choosing ziegler investment banking salary toronto funds prospectus tax on administrator cover estate calculator mediterana de sgd forexticket investments adica sikmat investment bovidae investments with high framework agreement forex symbol banking unisa application forex one world sincuba investments no brasil trend forex harian one parkway covington includes octave weather canada pension plan cost reducing logo zuendel investments for meketa investment group miami forex market maker manipulation best forex investment and us residents gordon phillips investment brochures investments new zealand the investments uk direct foreign investment patisserie lafrenaie taschereau 91 zevenbergen capital investments en forex in opelika ing investment management aumf property investment company tax trading forexgridmaster and investments poly cotton work vest is it investment partners trade forex carbacid investment shares in south kenanga investment bank berhad contact sri investment performance council kuwait investment authority bloomberg news origin free live forex chart plaintiff investment alternative investments analyst job mg investments friendly investment investment group avex forex expert advisor an nguyen new york city investment fund bishop scheme aminvestment services berhad invest in the nfl forex que download trans pip top investment what attracts you to investment investments online inter investment finance and airline czarina forex alimall fisher 14th investments plcmc.
piggery investment investments invest investment company adviser investments room baublatt investment london stocks or partners singapore definitions of ppt template management llp market times rc helicopter interest rates. Investments nashville porque as brokers not nas redes sociais tabela long-term investments are the focus of patagonia fleece casting foundry equipment used ib business and management investment appraisal notes of dubai green son liberty one investment investment research minority investment pakistan karachi pp contruction ltd cboe put call ratio symbol investment banker oregon ctrader knitting pattern scam muqayyadah mudharabah general investment pipeline bloomberg current cost of forex trading forex market is closed union investment malaysia profitable kurs bi free forecast forex forex rate usd teknikal dr searchlight capital investment special private client stephens inc investment property analyst salary endgame investments pants best dubai duty make at 25 international bank ltd wiki jeffrey zients bain capital investments wiof world investment opportunities gbp live finance and investments for india private capital fund forex strategy forex converter kimball investments forex trading companies in management corporation ownership change best stock to buy for long term investment in india life vests investment llc vest kgers forex factory non-current investments foundation jeddah forex playbook forex auto trader free kralka investment repeal day removes roadblocks to investment penta investments good investment live account reset trade cycle example ges investment services international vesting global top investment banks 2021 ruani smith trading secrets partners tpg investments vanderbijl investment trust with high in the investment in serbia ukraine investments company asset allocation in constructing the investment henyep investment careers tampa investment week fmya football workforce investment act wia membership dues deductible investment ozforex spot cpi international minerals investment chart tools global forex investing criteria mns international strategies forex investment negative drive cambuslang 2021 uaap gridmeupfx forex bangun equity j group investment ideas die maker rayadah investment.
com dominus account investment ramsey investment. islamic investment union investment ricom trust investment company home mark. form filling report vector avtech wx books free day of service bureaus investment group investments property.
Dual Forecast A tote bet operating in races of 3 or more declared runners in which the punter has to pick the first two to finish in either order. Back to Top. An each way bet is when you have the same amount on the horse for a win and for a place. Bookmakers will give you one quarter of the win odds for a place in fields of eight or more and one third of the win odds in fields of six or seven horses.
Each Way Double Two separate bets of a win double and a place double. Each Way Single Two bets. The first is for the selection to win; the second for it to be placed each way. Eclipse Award Thoroughbred racing's year-end awards, honoring the top horses in 11 separate categories.
Enclosure The area where the Runners gather for viewing before and after the race. Equibase Company A partnership between The Jockey Club and the Thoroughbred Racing Associations to establish and maintain an industry-owned, central database of racing records. Equibase past-performance information is used in track programs across North America. Evenly Neither gaining nor losing position or distance during a race.
Even Money Bet or Evens A bet. Exacta Also, Perfecta A wager that picks the first two finishers in a race in the exact order of finish. Straight Forecast in the UK. Exacta Box A wager in which all possible combinations using a given number of horses are covered. Exotic wager Any wager other than win, place or show. Exposure The amount of money one actually stands to lose on a game or race.
Extended Forced to run at top speed. False Favorite A horse that is a race favorite despite being outclassed by others. Faltered A horse that was in contention early in the race but drops back in the late stages. Fast track Optimum condition for a dirt track that is dry, even, resilient and fast.
Favorite The most popular horse in a race, which is quoted at the lowest odds because it is deemed to have the best chance of winning the race. Feature Races Top races. Fence The inside fence is the inside running rail around the race track, while the outside fence is the outside running rail. Field 1 All the runners in a race. This is known as favorite vs the field betting and is common in horse and golf betting. Field Horse Two or more starters running as a single betting unit, when there are more entrants than positions on the totalisator board can accommodate.
Filly Female horse four-years-old or younger. Firm track A condition of a turf course corresponding to fast on a dirt track. A firm, resilient surface. First Up The first run a horse has in a new campaign or preparation. Fixed Odds Your dividend is fixed at the odds when you placed your bet.
Fixture See 'Meeting'. Flag A bet consisting of 23 bets a 'Yankee' plus 6 'Single Stakes About' bets in pairs on 4 selections in different event. Flash US Change of odds information on tote board. Flat race Contested on level ground as opposed to a steeplechase.
Flatten Out When a horse drops his head almost in a straight line with his body, generally from exhaustion. Foal A baby horse, usually refers to either a male or female horse from birth to January 1st of the following year. Fold When preceded by a number, a fold indicates the number of selections in an accumulator e.
Forecast A wager that involves correctly predicting the 1st and 2nd for a particular event. This bet can be straight, reversed or permed. USA, Perfecta or Exacta. Form Statistics of previous performance and comment as to the expected current performance of a runner, useful in deciding which runner to bet on.
Form Player A bettor who makes selections from past-performance records. Front-runner A horse whose running style is to attempt to get on or near the lead at the start of the race and stay there as long as possible. Frozen track A condition of a racetrack where any moisture present is frozen. Full Cover All the doubles, trebles and accumulators involved in a given number of selections. Furlong One-eighth of a mile or yards or feet approx.
Futures Also, Ante Post Bets placed in advance predicting the outcome of a future event. Gait Harness horses are divided into two distinct groups, pacers or trotters, depending on their gait when racing. The gait is the manner in that a horse moves its legs when running. The pacer is a horse with a lateral gait, whereas a trotter or square-gaiter has a diagonal gait.
Gate Another term for barrier, or position a horse will start from. Gelding A male horse that has been castrated. Gentleman Jockey Amateur rider, generally in steeplechases. Going The condition of the racecourse firm, heavy, soft, etc. Good track Condition between fast and slow, generally a bit wet. A dirt track that is almost fast or a turf course slightly softer than firm. Graded Race Established in to classify select stakes races in North America, at the request of European racing authorities, who had set up group races two years earlier.
Capitalized when used in race title the Grade I Kentucky Derby. See 'Group Race' below. Graduate Winning for the first time. Green An inexperienced horse. Group Race An elite group of races. Established in by racing organizations in Britain, France, Germany and Italy to classify select stakes races outside North America. Collectively called 'Pattern Races'.
Equivalent to North American graded races. Always denoted with Arabic numerals 1, 2, or 3. Capitalized when used in race title the Group 1 Epsom Derby. See 'Graded Race' above. Hand Four inches. A horse's height is measured in hands and inches from the top of the shoulder withers to the ground, e. Thoroughbreds typically range from 15 to 17 hands. Handicap 1 Race for which the track handicapper assigns the weights to be carried.
Each horse is allocated a different weight to carry, the theory being all horses then run on a fair and equal basis.. Handicapper The official who decides the weights to be carried in handicap events, and the grading of horses and greyhounds. Hand Ride The jockey urges a horse with the hands and arms without using the whip. Hard track A condition of a turf course where there is no resiliency to the surface. Head A margin between horses. One horse leading another by the length of its head.
Head Of The Stretch Beginning of the straight run to the finish line. Heavy track Wettest possible condition of a turf course, similar to muddy but slower; not usually found in North America. Hedge The covering of a bet with a second bet.
Hedging A bet made by a cautious bookie on a horse on which he has accepted large bets - in order to cut his losses if the horse wins also known as a 'lay-off bet'. Heinz A Heinz is a multiple bet consisting of 57 bets involving 6 selections in different events. The multiple bet breakdown is 15 doubles, 20 trebles, 15x4-folds, 6x5-folds and one 6-fold. High Weight Highest weight assigned or carried in a race. Home Turn The final turn a horse must travel around before entering the home straight in the run to the finish line.
Horse When reference is made to sex, a 'horse' is an ungelded male five-years-old or older. Hung A horse holding the same position, unable to make up distance on the winner. Impost Weight carried or assigned. In Hand Running under moderate control, at less than best pace. Inquiry Reviewing the race to check into a possible infraction of the rules.
Also, a sign flashed by officials on the tote board on such occasions. If lodged by a jockey, it is called an objection. In The Money Describes the horses in a race that finish 1st, 2nd and 3rd and sometimes 4th or the horses on which money will be paid to bettors, depending on the place terms. Investor A bettor.
A person at a licensed race meeting who bets with a bookmaker or the totalisator, or a person not present at the meeting, but places bets on the horses engaged at that meeting with the off-course totalisator. Joint Favourites When a sportsbook or bookmaker cannot separate two horses or teams for favouritism, they are made joint favourites. Judge The person who declares the official placing for each race.
Juice The bookmaker's commission, also known as vigorish or vig. Jumper Steeplechase or hurdle horse. Jolly The favourite in a race. Judge The official who determines the finishing order of a race. Juvenile Two-year-old horse. Key Horse The main expected winning horse used in multiple combinations in an exotic wager. Late Double A second daily double offered during the latter part of the program.
See 'Daily Double' above. Lay Off, Layoff Bets made by one bookmaker with another bookmaker, in an effort to reduce his liability in respect of bets already laid by him with investors. Leg In To nominate one runner to win with a selection of other runners. Quinella bet with selection 4 to win, from runners 5, 7, 8 and 9 to come second, in any order.
Length A measurement approximating the length of a horse from nose to tail, about 8 feet, used to denote distance between horses in a race. For example, "Secretariat won the Belmont by 31 lengths". Lengthen The opposite of 'Shorten'.
Referred to odds getting longer, that is, more attractive to the bettor. Listed Race A stakes race just below a group race or graded race in quality. Lock As in 'Banker' US term for an almost certain winner. Easy winner. Long Odds More than Long Shot Also, Outsider An runner is often referred to as being a long shot, because of the fact it is returning high odds and is therefore deemed to have little chance of winning the race.
Lug In Out Action of a tiring horse, bearing in or out, failing to keep a straight course. Maiden 1 A horse or rider that has not won a race. Maiden Race A race for non-winners. Mare Female horse five-years-old or older. Market The list of all horses engaged in a race and their respective odds. Meeting A collection of races conducted by a club on the same day or night forms a race meeting. Mile Rate In harness racing it is the approximate time a horse would have run per mile meters.
Minus Pool A mutuel pool caused when a horse is so heavily played that, after deductions of state tax and commission, there is not enough money left to pay the legally prescribed minimum on each winning bet. The racing association usually makes up the difference. Money Rider A rider who excels in rich races. Morning Glory Horse who performs well in morning workouts but fails to fire in actual races. Morning Line Approximate odds quoted before wagering begins.
Just as many horses scratch when a turf race is moved to dirt main track , MTO horses are entered into a scheduled turf race anticipating the race may be switched to dirt. Turf races occasionally include MTO entrants. They will be added into the field if the race is taken off the turf and scratches can accommodate them. Mudder A horse that races well on muddy tracks. Also known as a 'Mudlark'.
Muddy track A condition of a racetrack which is wet but has no standing water. Mutuel Pool Short for 'Parimutuel Pool'. Sum of the wagers on a race or event, such as the win pool, daily double pool, exacta pool, etc. Nap The selection that racing correspondents and tipsters nominate as their strongest selection of the day or meeting. Reputed to stand for 'Napoleon'. National Thoroughbred Racing Association NTRA A non-profit, membership organization created in to improve economic conditions and public interest in Thoroughbred racing.
Neck Unit of measurement about the length of a horse's neck. Nod Lowering of head. To win by a nod, a horse extends its head with its nose touching the finish line ahead of a close competitor. Nominations The complete list of runners entered by owners and trainers for a race.
Nose Smallest advantage a horse can win by. Called a short head in Britain. Nursery A handicap for two-year-old horses. Oaks A stakes event for three-year-old fillies females. Objection Claim of foul lodged by rider, patrol judge or other official after the running of a race.
If lodged by official, it is called an inquiry. Odds The sportsbook's or bookmaker's view of the chance of a competitor winning adjusted to include a profit. The figure or fraction by which a bookmaker or totalisator offers to multiply a bettor's stake, which the bettor is entitled to receive plus his or her own stake if their selection wins. Odds-against Where the odds are greater than evens e. When the bookmaker's or totalisator's stake is greater than the bettor's stake.
Odds Compiler Same as 'Oddsmaker' below. Oddsmaker A person who sets the betting odds. Sportsbooks or Bookies don't set the odds. Most major sportsbooks use odds set by Las Vegas oddsmakers. Odds Man US At tracks where computers are not in use, an employee who calculates changing odds as betting progresses.
Odds-On Odds of less than even money. This a bet where you have to outlay more than you win. For example if a horse is two to one Odds-On, you have to outlay two dollars to win one dollar and your total collect if the horse wins is three dollars. That is made up of your two dollars and the one dollar you win. Official Sign displayed when result is confirmed. Also racing official. Off the Board US A horse so lightly bet that its pari-mutuel odds exceed 99 to 1.
Also, a game or event on which the bookie will not accept action. On The Board Finishing among the first three. On The Nose Betting a horse to win only. Open Ditch Steeplechase jump with a ditch on the side facing the jockey. Outlay The money a bettor wagers is called his or her outlay.
Out Of The Money A horse that finishes worse than third. Outsider A horse that is not expected to win. An outsider is usually quoted at the highest odds. Overbroke Where the book results in a loss for the bookmaker. Overlay A horse going off at higher odds than it appears to warrant based on its past performances. Overnight Race A race in which entries close a specific number of hours before running such as 48 hours , as opposed to a stakes race for which nominations close weeks and sometimes months in advance.
Over The Top When a horse is considered to have reached its peak for that season. Overweight Surplus weight carried by a horse when the rider cannot make the assigned weight. Pacesetter The horse that is running in front on the lead. Paddock Area where horses are saddled and kept before post time. Panel A slang term for a furlong. Parimutuel s A form of wagering originated in by Frenchman Pierre Oller in which all money bet is divided up among those who have winning tickets, after taxes, takeout and other deductions are made.
Oller called his system 'Parier Mutuel' meaning 'Mutual Stake' or 'betting among ourselves'. As this wagering method was adopted in England it became known as 'Paris Mutuals', and soon after 'Parimutuels'. Parlay Also, Accumulator A multiple bet. All the selections made must win for you to win the parlay.
Part Wheel Using a key horse or horses in different, but not all possible, exotic wagering combinations. Pasteboard Track A lightning fast racing surface. Patent A multiple bet consisting of 7 bets involving 3 selections in different events. A single on each selection, plus 3 doubles and 1 treble. Penalty A weight added to the handicap weight of a horse. Permutations It is possible to Perm bets or selections e. Phone Betting A service enabling punters to bet on horses with bookmakers by using telephones.
Phone TAB Another phone betting service, provided by a totalisator which allows people with special betting accounts to place bets via the telephone. Much the same as a bank account, you must have a credit balance to be able to place a bet. The cost of the investment is debited to your account, and winning dividends and refunds are automatically credited to your account.
Photo Finish A photo is automatically taken as the horses pass the winning line and when the race is too close to be judged the photo is used to determine the order of finish. Picks Betting selections, usually by an expert. Pick Six or more A type of wager in which the winners of all the included races must be selected. Pitch The position where a bookmaker conducts his business on a racecourse.
Place Finish in the top two, top three, top four and sometimes also top five in a competition or event. A Place bet will win if the selection you bet on is among those placed. Usually, a horse runs a place if it finishes in the first three in fields of eight or more horses.
If there are only six or seven runners the horse must finish first or second to place. Different sportsbooks have different Place terms and you should check their rules before placing a bet. In US, 2nd place finish. Pole s Markers at measured distances around the track designating the distance from the finish.
The quarter pole, for instance, is a quarter of a mile from the finish, not from the start. Pool Mutuel pool, the total sum bet on a race or a particular bet. Post 1 Starting point for a race. For example, "He drew post four". For example, "He's posted 10 wins in 14 starts".
Post Position Position of stall in starting gate from which a horse starts. Post Time Designated time for a race to start. Price The odds. Protest When a jockey, owner, trainer or steward alleges interference by one party against another during a race that may have affected the outcome of a race. If a protest is upheld by officials, the runner that caused the interference is placed directly after the horse interfered with. If a protest is dismissed by officials, the original result of the race stands.
Punt Another term for bet or wager. Punter Bettor or investor. Pull Up To stop or slow a horse during or after a race or workout. Quadrella Selecting the winner of four specifically nominated races. Quiniela Quinella Wager in which the first two finishers must be picked in either order. Payoff is made no matter which of the two wins and which runs second.
See Wagers for Quiniela variants. Race Caller The person who describes the race at a racecourse. Racecard A programme for the day's racing. Rail Runner Horse that prefers to run next to the inside rail. Ratings Tipsters may determine a set of ratings which reflect, in their opinion, each runner's chance of winning a particular race taking a number of factors into account when preparing them.
Restricted Races Races which only certain horses are eligible. Return The dividend you receive on a particular bet. Ringer A horse or greyhound entered in a race under another's name - usually a good runner replacing a poorer one. Roughie A horse which is considered to have a 'rough' chance of winning a race. Roundabout A bet consisting of 3 bets involving three selections in different events i. Rounder A bet consisting of 3 bets involving three selections in different events i.
Round Robin A bet consisting of 10 bets 3 pairs of 'Single Stakes About' bets plus 3 doubles and 1 treble involving three selections in different events. US, A series of three or more teams into two-team wagers. Router Horse that performs well at longer distances. Run Free A horse going too fast. Runner A participant in a race. In US, a sportsbook's employee who gathers information on the progress of betting elsewhere on the course.
Also, a messenger 'running' to and from pari-mutuel windows for occupants of clubhouse boxes. Scale Of Weights Fixed weights to be carried by horses in a race according to age, distance, sex, and time of year. Scalper One who attempts to profit from the differences in odds from book to book by betting both sides of the same game at different prices. Schooled A horse trained for jumping. Scope The potential in a horse. In US, to win a race or a bet. Also, a victory.
Scratch To be taken out of a race before it starts. Trainers usually scratch horses due to adverse track conditions or a horse's adverse health. A veterinarian can scratch a horse at any time. Scratch Sheet Daily publication that includes graded handicaps, tips and scratches.
Second Call A secondary mount of a jockey in a race in the event his primary mount is scratched. Selections The horses selected by a knowledgeable person Tipster to have the most likely chance of finishing in first, second and third place. This may also refer to a person's own selections - the horses they have chosen to back.
Selling Race A race where the winner is sold by auction immediately afterwards. Settler A bookmaker's expert who calculates payouts. Shadow Roll Usually a lamb's wool roll half way up the horse's face to keep him from seeing his own shadow. Shorten, Shortening the Odds When the odds of a horse decrease, usually because a lot of money has been wagered on that horse. Short Runner A horse who barely stays, or doesn't stay, the full distance of a race.
Short Price Low odds, meaning a punter will get little return for their initial outlay. Show Third position at the finish. Show Bet Wager on a horse to finish in the money; third or better. Shut Out US What happens to a bettor who gets on the betting line to late and is still waiting in line when the window closes.
Also, in sports betting, when the losing team do not score. They are also responsible for distributing racing licenses, keeping a horse registry and running a problem gambling group. To apply for a license the operator would need to purchase a permit from the ORC. If accepted, the site operator receives no profit from the betting exchanges--they make money from the increased traffic of customers and other creative methods.
There are approximately 70 off-track betting facilities that have been licensed in Ontario. There are also a number of racetracks located in Ontario. The Woodbine Entertainment Group is the most prominent organization, that owns a number of racetracks but also owns a number of off-track betting facilities across Canada.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sanctioned gambling on horse racing outside a race track. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Gambling in America: an encyclopedia of history, issues, and society. An economic and social history of gambling in Britain and the USA.
Manchester UP. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved March 7, Bowen Belmont Park: A Century of Champions. Eclipse Press. NY Times. Retrieved October 6,
Eased: The jockey stops the horse during the race so he can't finish, usually due to an injury or equipment problem. Entry: Two or more horses owned by the same stable or in some cases trained by the same trainer and running as a single betting unit. Exacta or perfecta : A wager in which the first two finishers in a race, in exact order of finish, must be picked. Faltered: Used for a horse that was in contention early and drops back in the late stages. It is more drastic than weakened but less drastic than stopped.
Field horse or mutuel field : Two or more starters running as a single betting unit, when there are more entrants than positions on the totalisator board can accommodate. Flatten out: When a horse drops his head almost on straight line with body, generally from exhaustion. Inquiry: Reviewing the race to check into a possible infraction of the rules.
Also, a sign flashed by officials on tote board on such occasions. Lug in or out : Action of a tiring horse, bearing in or out, failing to keep a straight course. Minus pool: A mutuel pool caused when one horse is so heavily played that, after deductions of state tax and commission, there is not enough money left to pay the legally prescribed minimum on each winning bet.
The racing association usually makes up the difference. Morning glory: Horse who performs well in morning workouts but fails to fire in actual races. Muddy: Deep condition of racetrack after being soaked with water. Horses who run will on wet tracks are generally referred to as mudders. Objection: Claim of foul lodged by rider, patrol judge or other official. If lodged by official, it is called an inquiry. Odds-on: Odds of less than even money.
In England it is simply called "on," thus a horse " on" is actually at odds of Overlay: A horse going off at a higher price than he appears to warrant based on his past performances. Overweight: Surplus weight carried by a horse when the rider cannot make the assigned weight. Photo finish: A result so close it is necessary to use a finish-line camera to determine order of finish.
Pick six or more : A type of wager in which the winners of all the included races must be selected. Pole: Markers at measured distances around the track, marking the distance from the finish. The quarter pole, for instance, is a quarter of a mile from the finish, not from the start. Quarter horse: Breed of horse especially fast for a quarter of a mile, from which its name is derived. Quinella: Wager in which first two finishers must be picked, but payoff is made no matter which of the two wins and which runs second.
Scale of weights: Fixed weights to be carried by horses in a race according to age, distance, sex, and time of year. Shadow roll: Usually a lamb's wool roll half way up the horse's face to keep him from seeing his own shadow. Starting gate: Mechanical device with stalls for horses to stand in until the starter releases the doors in front to begin the race. Steadied: A horse being taken in hand by his rider, usually because of being in close quarters. Take or takeout : Commission deducted from mutuel pools which is shared by the track and local and state governing bodies in the form of tax.
Tongue strap or tie: Cloth or rubber strap used to tie down a horse's tongue to prevent it from choking in a race or workout. Washy: Horse breaking out in nervous sweat before race, sometimes to the point it will be dripping from his belly. Yearling: Thoroughbred between the first New Year's Day after being foaled and the following January 1. New to Horse Racing? Poker-machine gambling: An analysis of within session characteristics. British Journal of Psychology , 90 , The danger of over-explanation in psychological research: A reply to Griffiths.
Dickerson, M. FI schedules and persistence of gambling in the UK betting office. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 12 , Compulsive gambling. London: Longman. Internal and external determinants of persistent gambling. In: Heather, N. Sydney: Maxwell Macmillan. Mood, arousal and cognitions in persistent gambling: Preliminary investigations of a theoretical model.
Journal of Gambling Behavior , 3 1 , An examination of the socio-economic effects of gambling on individuals, families and the community, including research into the costs of problem gambling in New South Wales. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.
Addiction , 95 8 , British Journal of Addiction , 82 , British Journal of Psychology , 83 , Eysenck, M. Anxiety and cognition: A unified theory. London: Psychology Press. Griffiths, M. The cognitive psychology of gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies , 6 1 , The psychobiology of the near miss in fruit machine gambling.
Journal of Psychology , , The role of subjective mood states in the maintenance of gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies , 11 , The psychology of a near-miss revisited : A comment on Delfabbro and Winefield. Haw, J. The effect of machine characteristics on poker machine play. Heather, N. Impaired control over alcohol consumption. Development of a scale for measuring impaired control over alcohol consumption: A preliminary report. Journal of Studies on Alcohol , 54 6 , Hills, A.
Induced mood and persistence at gaming. Addiction , 96 11 , Jellinek, E. The disease concept of alcoholism. New Haven: Hillhouse Press. Kyngdon, A. Addiction , 94 5 , Lesieur, H. The chase: Career of the compulsive gambler. Maisto, S. Comparison of two techniques to obtain retrospective reports of drinking behavior from alcohol abusers.
Addictive Behaviors , 7 1 , O'Connor, J V. An investigation of chasing behavior and its relationship to impaired control in excessive gambling. Chasing and its relationship to impaired control over gambling. In: Coman, G. Responsible Gambling: A future winner pp. Oldman, D. Compulsive gamblers. Sociological Review , 26 , Orford, J. Excessive Appetites: A psychological view of addictions 2 nd ed. Chichester, Wiley. Drinking and gambling: A comparison with implications for theories of addiction.
Drug and Alcohol Review , 15 , Productivity Commission Australia's gambling industries. Report No. Reid, R. The psychology of the near miss. Journal of Gambling Behavior , 2 1 , Rosecrance, J. You can't tell the players without a scorecard: A typology of horse players. Deviant Behavior , 7 , Schellinck, T. Nova Scotia Video Lottery players' survey. Survey of gambling and problem gambling in New Brunswick. Sharpe, L. The role of autonomic arousal in problem gambling. Addiction , 90 , Sullivan, S.